Herb of the Month: Broccoli Sprouts
An amazing compound found in 3-7 day old broccoli sprouts, Sulforaphane glucosinolate (SGS) can protect us against cancer.Sulforaphane increases the body's own defense system against carcinogens. Cells in the body contain a family of detoxification enzymes (Phase 2 enzymes) that neutralize cancer-causing chemicals as well as free radicals before they damage DNA and initiate cancer.
READ: New York Times Article on Broccoli Sprouts Research.
"Chemoprotection is a deliberate effort to increase the body's defense systems against chemicals, including carcinogens, that can lead to disease," according to John Hopkins University Professor Dr. Talalay. "Chemoprotection may lower a person's risk of developing cancer by building up the body's own defenses".
Broccoli sprouts are a concentrated source of cancer-fighting sulforaphane.
Positive research is coming in, for a wide range of CANCER PROTECTION cancers, Bladder, Breast, Colon, Liver, Lung, Prostate, Skin.
Scientists at Ohio State University published a study that showed compounds from broccoli were able to decrease progression of cancer in lines of bladder cancer cells from humans and mice.
1. The role of c-Jun in the AP-1 activation induced by naturally occurring isothiocyanates Food Chem Toxicol. 2005 Sep;43(9):1373-80.Li J, Yao S, Zhang Y.
2. Dietary isothiocyanates inhibit the growth of human bladder carcinoma cells
J Nutr. 2004 Aug;134(8):2004-10Tang L, Zhang Y. PubMed ID: 15284390
3. Isothiocyanates in the chemoprevention of bladder cancer
Curr Drug Metab. 2004 Apr;5(2):193-201.Tang L, Zhang Y.
PubMed ID: 15078196
1.Broccoli sprouts: An exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens (#) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 94, pp. 10367-10372, September 16, 1997.
Jed W. Fahey, Yuesheng Zhang, and Paul Talalay PubMed ID: 9294217
2. Inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene- and 1,6-dinitropyrene-DNA adduct formation in human mammary epithelial cells by dibenzoylmethane and sulforaphane (#)
Cancer Letters 2000 July 3; 155(1):47-54.Singletary K, MacDonald C.
PubMed ID: 10814878 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 94, pp. 10367-10372, September 16, 1997.Jed W. Fahey, Yuesheng Zhang, and Paul Talalay
PubMed ID: 9294217
3. Anticarcinogenic Activities of Sulforaphane and Structurally Related Synthetic Norbornyl Isothiocyanates (#) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994 Apr 12;91(8):3147-50
Y Zhang, TW Kensler, C Cho, GH Posner and P Talalay PubMed ID: 8159717
Researchers at the American Health Foundation, Valhalla, NY, showed that sulforaphane significantly inhibited the formation of colon cancer in rats.
1. Sulforaphane inhibits histone deacetylase in vivo and suppresses tumorigenesis in Apcmin mice (#)
FASEB Journal Express. Published on-line January 11, 2006.
Melinda C. Myzak, W. Mohaiza Dashwood, Gayle A. Orner, Emily Ho, and Roderick H. Dashwood
PubMed ID: 16407454
2. Chemoprevention of colonic aberrant crypt foci in Fischer rats by major isothiocyanates in watercress and broccoli.
Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research, March 2000; 41:660.
Chung F-L, Conaway CC, Rao CV, Reddy BS.
PubMed ID: 11133820
3.Sulforaphane, A Naturally Occurring Isothiocyanate, Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in HT29 Human Colon Cancer Cells
Cancer Research. 2000 March 1; 60(5):1426-1433.
Gamet-Payrastre L, Li P, Lumeau S, Cassar G, Dupont MA, Chevolleau S, Gase N, Tulliez J, Terçé F.
PubMed ID: 10728709
In a rural area of China where there is a very high prevalence of liver cancer due to a confluence of hepatitis virus and environmental toxins, scientists at Johns Hopkins University and Qidong Liver Institute PRC, near Shanghai performed experiments to measure the ability of broccoli sprouts to increase the body's abilities to detoxify carcinogens. The change in these biomarkers strongly suggests that there was an enhanced detoxification (neutralization) of carcinogens from the human body leading to a reduction in cancer risk.
1. Effects of glucosinolate-rich broccoli sprouts on urinary levels of aflatoxin-DNA adducts and phenanthene tetraols in a randomized clinical trial in He Zuo Township, Qidong, PRC
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., Nov 2005; 14(11).
Kensler, T.W., Chen, J-G., Egner, P.A., Fahey, J.W., Jacobson, L.P., Stephenson, K.K., Ye, X., Coady, J.L.,Wang, J-B., Wu, Y., Sun, Y., Zhang, Q-N., Zhang, B-C., Zhu, Y-R., Qian, G-S., Carmella, S.G., Hecht, S.S., Benning, L., Gange, S.J., Groopman, J.D. and Talalay, P.
PubMed ID: 16284385
In the September 15, 2005 issue of Cancer Research, scientists from the Georgetown University Medical Center, reported that sulforaphane and another isothiocyanate could prevent benign tumors produced by a cigarette carcinogen from developing into full-blown cancer tumors in lungs of mice.
1.Antimetastatic activity of Sulforaphane. Life Science 2006 May 22; 78(26):3043-50.Thejass P, Kuttan G. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2005.12.038 PubMed ID: 16600309
2. N-Acetylcysteine Conjugate of Phenethyl Isothiocyanate Enhances Apoptosis in Growth-Stimulated Human Lung Cells.
Cancer Res. 2005 Sep 15;65(18):8538-47.
Yang-Ming Yang, Meena Jhanwar-Uniyal, Joel Schwartz, C. Clifford Conaway, H. Dorota Halicka, Frank Traganos and Fung-Lung Chung. PubMed ID: 16166335
3. Phenethyl Isothiocyanate and Sulforaphane and their N-Acetylcysteine Conjugates Inhibit Malignant Progression of Lung Adenomas Induced by Tobacco Carcinogens in A/J Mice. Cancer Res. 65: (18) 8548-8557.
Conaway, C, Wang, C-X, Pittman, B, Yang, Y-M, Schwartz, J, Tian, D, McIntee, E,Hecht, S, Chung, F-L. PubMed ID: 16166336
Potent Induction of Phase 2 Enzymes in Human Prostate Cells by Sulforaphane.
Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, Vol. 10, pp. 949-954. Sept. 2001.
James D. Brooks, Vincent G. Paton and Genevieve Vidanes.
PubMed ID: 11535546
Human prostate cancer cells responded well to treatment with sulforaphane in the form of broccoli sprout extracts, showing dramatic increases in their Phase 2 protective enzymes.
Topical application of sulforaphane-containing broccoli sprout extracts is a promising strategy for protecting against skin tumor formation after exposure to UV radiation.
1. Protection against UV-light-induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 high-risk mice by sulforaphane-containing broccoli sprout extracts.
Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, November 2005, Vol. 14(11).
Dinkova-Kostova, A, Jenkins, S, Fahey, J, Ye, L, Wehage, S, Liby, K, Stephenson, K, Wade, K and Talalay, P. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2005.09.012 PubMed ID: 16271437
In a study from Japan, broccoli sprouts were fed to patients infected with Helicobacter pylori bacteria. H. pylori infection can cause stomach ulcers and markedly increases the risk of developing stomach cancer.
1.Daily Intake of Sulforaphane-Rich Broccoli Sprouts Improves Gastritis in H.pylori-Infected Human Subjects. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, November 2005, Vol. 14(11 Part 2): 2754s. Yanaka, A, Zhang, S, Yamamoto, M, Fahey, J.
2. Oral Broccoli Sprouts for the Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Preliminary Report Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 49(7/8):1088-1090, 2004.
Mark V. Galan, Md, Arfana A. Kishan, Md, And Ann L. Silverman, Md
PubMed ID: 15387326
3. Sulforaphane inhibits extracellular, intracellular, and antibiotic-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori and prevents benzo[a]pyrene-induced stomach tumors (#)
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 99, Issue 11, pp. 7610-7615, May 28, 2002
Jed W. Fahey, Xavier Haristoy, Patrick M. Dolan, Thomas W. Kensler, Isabelle Scholtus, Katherine K. Stephenson, Paul Talalay, and Alain Lozniewski
PubMed ID: 12032331